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Give Feedback. Get Information. Open Access Article. Aditya Parmar. Marwa R. Mohamed M. Karima F. Data are means of three replicates. Vertical bars represent standard error. Green beans are a perishable crop, which deteriorate rapidly after harvest, particularly when minimally processed into ready-to-eat fresh-cut green beans.
Our indicated that samples treated with ethanol, AsA, TTO, and PMO preserved appearance, firmness except ethanolchlorophyll content, and moisture compared with the samples without any treatment control. All the treatments had positive effects on shelf life, maintained quality, and reducing microbial growth during 15 days of cold storage. A particular treatment can be selected based on the economic feasibility and critical control point in the value chain. Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; peppermint; tea tree; storability; minimal processed; ready to eat Phaseolus vulgaris ; peppermint ; tea tree ; storability ; minimal processed ; ready to eat.
Introduction Green bean Phaseolus vulgaris belongs to the family of Fabaceae and is considered one of the most important legume crops worldwide.
The pods of green bean can be harvested at an immature stage as a fresh vegetable or mature stage for dried seeds. Green bean is a rich source of minerals, vitamins, and dietary fibre that play a ificant role in the human diet and wellbeing [ 1 ]. However, green bean pods are highly perishable with limited shelf-life due to their high respiration rate.
During postharvest, green beans are susceptible to mechanical damage, shriveling, chlorophyll pigment degradation, and increased fibre content [ 23 ]. These biochemical changes reduce the quality and consumption of green bean pods and decrease their economic and nutritional values. Due to rapid urbanisation in developing countries, demand for fresh minimally processed refrigerated fruit and vegetable has increased ificantly. Minimal processing includes trimming, peeling, coring, cutting, and packing.
These unit operations result in some undesirable morphological and physiological changes such as browning, pigmentations, and microbial growth. Additionally, the moisture loss and respiration rate of minimally processed vegetables are much higher during refrigerated storage compared to non-processed vegetables. The effects of several bioactive compounds in essential oils EOs and plant extracts as anti-microbial and shelf life enhancing agents in horticultural crops are well known [ 45 ].
Several studies have reported the positive effect of TTO for controlling postharvest diseases of fresh fruit and vegetables such as strawberry [ 8 ] and lettuce [ 9 ]. New investigations on the effect of PMO as a postharvest treatment showed preserved quality and storability of fresh fruit such as table grapes [ 11 ] and dragon fruit [ 12 ].
Ascorbic acid Fairfield essentials date and litchi review plays an important role in plant antioxidant systems and human health [ 1314 ]. Positive effects of AsA for controlling enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetables such as plums [ 15 ], mung bean sprouts [ 16 ], and fresh-cut artichoke [ 17 ] has been reported ly. Ethanol is another natural compound that is used in various postharvest treatments. reports mentioned that postharvest ethanol treatments dips or vapour extend the storage duration of several fresh horticultural products.
For example, ethanol has been shown to reduce postharvest fungal diseases of table grapes [ 19 ] and Chinese berries [ 20 ], delay yellowing of broccoli florets [ 21 ], retard senescence in vegetables [ 22 ], inhibit the ethylene pathway biosynthesis of melons [ 23 ], and suppress the ripening of tomatoes [ 24 ].
Green bean pods Phaseolus vulgaris L. Green bean pods free from defects and damage, with uniform diameter and length, were prepared by cutting the two ends of the pod with a sterile sharp knife. The fresh-cut green bean pods were immersed in four different treatment solutions:.
Ethanol 0. The control group left without any treatment. The dimensions of the bags were as follows: length 22 cm, breadth Each treatment was carried out in triplicate and the whole experiment was repeated. For each treatment, samples were divided into two groups. One group was used to determine weight loss, decay, and general appearance throughout full storage time and the other was used to determine pod quality parameters firmness and TSSchemical compounds vitamin C, TPC, and chlorophyll contentmould, yeast, and total microbial count.
All parameters were measured at time intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 d after treatments. Analyses were carried out using helium as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.
The identification of different constituents was determined by comparing the spectrum fragmentation pattern with those stored in Wiley and NIST Mass Spectral Library data. The control sample was prepared by mixing methanol with DPPH solution at the same volume.
The free radical scavenging activity of each essential oil was calculated according to Equation 1. Green bean samples were weighed immediately after drying in a laminar airflow hood for 2 h and at every sampling time to measure weight loss by using a digital laboratory scale. Another set of the green bean samples of g each in triplicates were used for further chemical analysis.
The appearance score was assessed by a group of three trained laboratory panelists. The firmness values were expressed in Newton N. The total sugar content was determined by the anthrone method at nm as described in [ 28 ]. Then, the extracts were evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 2 mL distilled water.
One millilitre of sample extracts was added to 1. The sample was brought to boil using a boiling water bath. The solution was cooled to room temperature and absorbance was measured. The formation of the blue-green complex indicates the presence of total sugars. Glucose was used as a standard. Vitamin C content was determined using the titrimetric method with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry [ 29 ].
TPC was calculated by using the Folin—Ciocalteu reagent with some alteration by using gallic acid as a standard curve [ 17 ]. The solution was blended with 2. Afterwards, 2 mL of aqueous sodium carbonate solution 7.
The final solution was mixed and incubated in the dark at room temperature for 1 h. The absorption was assessed at nm using the spectrophotometer, and the were expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalent GAE per mg of fresh fruit weight. Chlorophyll content was determined as described in [ 30 ]. In brief, 0. IETMilano, Italia. Statistical analyses of the pooled data from the two experiments were performed with SPSS software.
Moreover, a second one-way analysis was carried out to investigate the storage time in the supplements.